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Climate Change Institute

George Jacobson

Professor Emeritus, Climate Change Institute & School of Biology and Ecology

George Jacobson

Contact Information



320 Bryand Global Sciences
University of Maine 
Orono, ME  04469


Professor Emeritus of Biology, Ecology, and Climate Change


Maine State Climatologist (2007-2014)




  • Hultberg, T., P. Lagerås, L. Björkman, E. Sköld, G. L. Jacobson, P-O. Hedwall, & M. Lindbladh. (2017). The late-Holocene decline of Tilia in relation to climate and human activities – pollen evidence from 42 sites in Southern Sweden. Journal of Biogeography doi:10.1111/jbi.13016
  • Dieffenbacher-Krall, A., Borns, H., Birkel, S., Langley, G., Cwynar, L., Doner, L., Dorion, C., Fastook, J., Jacobson, G., Nurse, A., Sayles, C. 2016. Younger Dryas Paleoenvironments and Ice Dynamics in Northern Maine: a Multi-Proxy, Case History. Northeastern Naturalist 23:67-87.
  • Fernandez, I.J., C.V. Schmitt, S.D. Birkel, E. Stancioff, A.J. Pershing, J.T. Kelley, J.A. Runge, G.L. Jacobson, and P.A. Mayewski. 2015. Maine’s Climate Future: 2015 Update. Orono, ME: University of Maine. 24 pp.
  • Norton, S.A., G.L. Jacobson, J. Kopáček, and T. Navratil. 2015. A comparative study of long-term Hg and Pb sediment archives. Environmental Chemistry,
  • Novak, M., G.L. Jacobson, Jr., S, A. Norton, M. Stepanova, E, C. Grimm, I. Jackova, F. Buzek. 2013. Sulfur isotope evidence for changing input of continental and marine aerosols in a 60,000-year sediment core from Lake Tulane, central Florida, USA. Chemical Geology 349/350:110-116.
  • Qiao-Yu Cui, M-J Gaillard, G. Lemdahl, S. Sugita, A. Greisman, G.L. Jacobson, and F. Olsson. 2013. The role of tree composition in Holocene fire history of the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden, as revealed by the application of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm: Implications for biodiversity and climate-change issues. The Holocene 23:1747-1763.
  • Jacobson, G.L., S.A. Norton, E.C. Grimm, and T. Edgar. 2012. Changing climate and sea level alter Hg mobility at Lake Tulane, Florida, U.S. Environmental Science and Technology 46:11710-11717.

    For more information: Download file (PDF)

  • Norton, S.A., R.H. Perry, J.E. Saros, G.L. Jacobson, I.J. Fernandez, J. Kopacek, T.A. Wilson, and M.D. SanClements. 2011. The controls on phosphorus availability in a Boreal lake ecosystem since deglaciation. Journal of Paleolimnology 46:107–122.

    For more information: Download file (PDF)

  • Jacobson, G.L., I.J. Fernandez, P.A. Mayewski, and C.V. Schmitt (eds). 2009. Maine’s Climate Future: An initial assessment. Orono, ME: University of Maine.

    For more information: Read abstract

  • Jacobson, G.L., I.J. Fernandez, P.A. Mayewski, and C.V. Schmitt. 2009. Maine’s Climate Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. 2009. Maine Policy Review 17:16-23.
  • Greenwood, M.S., C. O’Brien, J.D. Schatz, C.A. Diggings, M.E. Day, G.L. Jacobson, A.S. White, and R.G. Wagner. 2008. Is early life-cycle success a determinant of the abundance of red spruce and balsam fir? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:2295-2305.
  • Kahl, J.S., S. J. Nelson, I. Fernandez, T. Haines, S. Norton, G. B. Wiersma, G. Jacobson Jr., A. Amirbahman, K. Johnson, M. Schauffler, L. Rustad, K. Tonnessen, R. Lent, M. Bank, J. Elvir, J. Eckhoff, H. Caron, P. Ruck, J. Parker, J. Campbell, D. Manski, R. Breen, K. Sheehan and A. Grygo. 2007. Watershed nitrogen and mercury geochemical fluxes integrate landscape factors in long-term research watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 126:9-25
  • Schaulffler, M., S.J. Nelson, J.S. Kahl, G.L. Jacobson, T.A. Haines, W.A. Patterson and K.B. Johnson. 2007. Paleoecological assessment of watershed history in PRIMENet watersheds at Acadia National Park, USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 126:39-53.
  • Huang, Y., B. Shuman, Y. Wang, T. Webb III, E.C. Grimm, and G.L. Jacobson. 2006. Climatic and environmental controls on the variation of C3 and C4 plant abundances in central Florida for the past 62,000 years. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 237: 428-435.
  • Jacobson, G.L. 2006. Past and future forest responses to climate change in New England. New England Society of American Foresters, News Quarterly 67(4):9-11.
  • Grimm, E.C., W.A. Watts, G.L. Jacobson, B.C.S. Hansen, H. Almquist, and A.C. Dieffenbacher-Krall. 2006. Evidence for warm wet Heinrich events in Florida. Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 2197-2211.
  • Grimm, E.C. and G.L. Jacobson Jr. 2004. Late Quaternary vegetation history of the eastern United States. pp. 381-402 In Gillespie, A.R., S.C. Porter, and B.F. Atwater (eds.) The Quaternary Period in the United States. Elsevier, Boston.
  • Borns, H.W., Jr., L.A. Doner, C.C. Dorion, G.L. Jacobson Jr., M.R. Kaplan, K.J. Kreutz, T.V. Lowell, W.B. Thompson, and T.K. Weddle. 2004. The deglaciation of Maine, U.S.A. pp. 89-109 in Ehlers, J. & Gibbard, P.L. (eds) Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology, Part II: North America. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Kahl, J.S., I. Fernandez, S.A. Norton, G.B. Wiersma, and G.L. Jacobson Jr. (Principal Investigators). 2003. Establishing paired gauged watersheds at Acadia National Park for long-term research on acidic deposition, nitrogen saturation, forest health, and mercury biogeochemistry (1998-2002). Final Integrated Report for National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.
  • Kahl, J.S., I. Fernandez, S.A. Norton, G.B. Wiersma, G.L. Jacobson, D. Manski, T. Haines, L. Rustad, C. Roman, and R. Lent. 2003. Introduction: Inferring regional patterns and responses in N and Hg biogeochemistry using two sets of gauged paired-watersheds. Pp. 1-16, in Kahl et al., Establishing paired gauged watersheds at Acadia National Park for long-term research on acidic deposition, nitrogen saturation, forest health, and mercury biogeochemistry (1998-2002). Final Integrated Report for National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.
  • Schauffler, M, S.J. Nelson, K.B. Johnson, J.S. Kahl, and G.L. Jacobson Jr. 2003. Paleoecological assessment of forest-disturbance in upper Hadlock Brook and upper Cadillac Brook watersheds. Pp. 16-35 in Kahl et al., Establishing paired gauged watersheds at Acadia National Park for long-term research on acidic deposition, nitrogen saturation, forest health, and mercury biogeochemistry (1998-2002). Final Integrated Report for National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.
  • Lindbladh, M., G.L.Jacobson Jr., and M.Schauffler. 2003. The postglacial history of three Picea species in New England, USA. Quaternary Research 59:61-69.
  • Lindbladh, M., R. O'Connor, and G.L. Jacobson, Jr 2002. Morphometric analysis of pollen grains for paleoecological studies: classification of Picea from eastern North America. American Journal of Botany 89: 1459-1467.
  • Schauffler, M. and G.L. Jacobson Jr. 2002. Persistence of coastal spruce refugia during the Holocene in northern New England, USA, detected by stand-scale pollen stratigraphies. Journal of Ecology 90:235-250. [This paper was recognized in a special essay by Peter Moore, “Climate Records Spruced Up” in the News and Views section of Nature, 9 May 2002.]
  • Dieffenbacher-Krall A.C. and G.L. Jacobson Jr. 2001. Post-glacial changes in the geographic ranges of certain aquatic vascular plants in North America. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 101B:79-84.
  • Jacobson, G.L. Jr. 2001. Past and Future Forest Responses to Climate Change in Northern New England. Pp. 226-227 in New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers Workshop on Climate Change: New Directions for the Northeast. Fredericton, NB.
  • Moreno, P.I., G.L. Jacobson Jr., T.V. Lowell, and G.H. Denton. 2001. Late-glacial cooling revealed by pollen records from the Chilean Lake District (41oS). Nature 409:804-808.
  • Jacobson, G.L. Jr. 2000. Post-glacial changes in vegetation and climate in northern New England. Rhodora 102:246-247.
  • DeHayes, D.H., G.L. Jacobson Jr., P.G. Schaberg, B. Bongarten. L. Iverson, and A.C. Dieffenbacher-Krall. 2000. Forest responses to changing climate: Lessons from the past and uncertainty for the future. pp. 495-540 in Mickler, R.A, R.A. Birdsey, and J. Hom, (Eds.) Responses of Northern U.S. Forests to Environmental Change. Springer.
  • Moreno, P.I., T.V. Lowell, G.H. Denton, G.L. Jacobson, Jr., and B.G. Andersen: 1999. Abrupt changes in vegetation and climate during the last glacial maximum and last termination in the Chilean lake district: A case study from Canal de la Puntilla (41ºs). Geografiska Annaler 81: 285-312.
  • Schauffler, M. and G.L. Jacobson Jr. 1998. Paleoecology of coastal and interior Picea (spruce) stands in Maine. Research summary and management recommendation. Technical Report NPS/BSO-BNR/NRTR/00-1. U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service.
  • Lawrence, M.W. and G.L. Jacobson Jr. 1997. Jumpstart 2000 – the Maine Economic Improvement Strategy: A targeted investment in research and development. Maine Policy Review 6:35-43.
  • Jacobson, G.L. Jr.: 1997. Ancient permanent plots provide a critical time perspective in Conservation biology. Natural Areas Report 8(3):2-3.
  • Pugh, A.L., IV, S.A. Norton, M. Schauffler, G.L. Jacobson Jr., J.S. Kahl, W.F. Brutsaert, and C.F. Mason: 1996. Interaction between peat and salt-contaminated runoff in Alton Bog, Maine, USA. Journal of Hydrology 182:83-104.
  • Schauffler, M., G.L. Jacobson Jr., A.L. Pugh IV, and S.A. Norton: 1996. Influence of vegetational structure on capture of salt and nutrient aerosols in a Maine peatland. Ecological Applications, 6:263-268.
  • Jacobson, G.L. Jr. and A. Dieffenbacher-Krall: 1995. White pine and climate change: Insights from the past. Journal of Forestry 93:39-42.
  • Jacobson, G.L. Jr.: 1993. The Last Deglaciation. Review of Bard, E. and W.S. Broecker (eds.). The Last Deglaciation: Absolute and Radiocarbon Chronologies. NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. Radiocarbon 35:341.
  • Grimm, E.C., G.L. Jacobson Jr., W.A. Watts, B.C.S. Hansen, and K.A. Maasch: 1993. A 50,000 year record of climate oscillations from Florida and its temporal correlation with the Heinrich events. Science 261:198-200.
  • Grimm, E.C. and G.L. Jacobson Jr.: 1992. Fossil-pollen evidence for abrupt climatic Change during the past 14,000 years in eastern North America. Climate dynamics 6:179-184.
  • Anderson, R.S., G.L. Jacobson Jr., R.B. Davis, and R. Stuckenrath: 1992. Gould Pond, Maine: late-glacial transition from marine to upland environments. Boreas 21:359-371.
  • Jacobson, G.L. Jr.: 1992. A 7000-Year History of White Pine. Pp. 19-26 In R.A. Stine and M.J. Baughman (Eds.) White Pine Symposium Proceedings. Conference in Duluth, MN in September 1992. Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.
  • Jacobson, G.L. Jr.: 1992. After the Ice Age. Review of Pielou, E.D. 1991. After the Ice Age: the return of life to glaciated North America. University of Chicago Press. Ecology 73:715.
  • Kelley, J.T., H. Almquist-Jacobson, G.L. Jacobson Jr., R. Gehrels, and Z. Schneider: 1992. The geologic and vegetative development of tidal marshes at Wells, Maine. U.S.A. Research Report to the Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr., H.A. Jacobson, and J.C. Winne: 1991. Conservation of rare plant habitat: Insights from the recent history of vegetation and fire at Crystal Fen, northern Maine, U.S.A. Biological Conservation 57:287-314.
  • Jacobson, G.L. Jr.:1991. Review of Packrat Middens: The last 40,000 years of bioticchange, Betancourt, J., Van Devender, T. and martin, P.S. (eds.). Ecology 72:760.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr., and H.A. Jacobson: 1990. An inventory of distribution and variation in salt mashes from different settings along the Maine coast. pp. 69-84 in Anderson, W.A. and H.W. Borns, Jr. (eds.). Neotectonics of Maine: Studies in Seismicity, crustal Warping and Sea-Level Change. Maine Geological Survey, Bulletin 40.
  • McMahon, J.S., G.L. Jacobson Jr., and F. Hyland: 1990. An Atlas of the Native Woody Plants of Maine: A Revision of the Hyland Maps. Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 830. 259 pp.
  • Mosley-Thompson, E., E. Baron, E.A. Boyle, K. Burke, T. Crowley, L.J. Graumlich, G.L. Jacobson Jr., D. Rind, G. Shen, and S. Stanley: 1990. Earth system history and modeling. In Committee on Global change, Research Strategies for the U.S. Global Change Research Program, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 67-107.
  • Jacobson, H.A. and G.L. Jacobson, Jr.: 1989. The nature and variability of vegetation in Maine salt marshes. Canadian Journal of Botany 67:230-238.
  • Hunter, M.L., Jr., G.L. Jacobson, Jr., and T. Webb III: 1989. Paleoecology and the coarse-filter approach to maintaining biological diversity. Conservation Biology 2:375-385. [Reprinted as one of the featured papers in D. Ehrenfeld. Ed (1995) Plant conservation: Readings from conservation Biology.]
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr. and E.C. Grimm: 1988. Synchrony of rapid change in late-glacial vegetation south of the Laurentide ice sheet. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 33:31-38.
  • Kelley, J.T., D.F. Belknap, G.L. Jacobson, and H.A. Jacobson: 1988. The morphology and origin of salt marshes along the glaciated coastline of Maine, USA. Journal of Coastal Research 4:649-665.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr.: 1988. Ancient permanent plots: Sampling in paleovegetational studies. pp. 3-16 In Huntley, B. and T. Webb III (eds.) Vegetation history v 7 In H. Leith (ed.) Handbook of Vegetation Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr., H.A. Jacobson, and J.C. Winne: 1988. Recent history of vegetation and fire at Crystal Fen in northern Maine. Report to The Nature conservancy, Maine Chapter research Contracts program. 11 pp + 7 figures.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr. and R.B. Davis: 1988. The real forest primeval. Habitat 5:26-29.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr., T. Webb III, and E.C. Grimm: 1987. Patterns and rates of vegetation change during the deglaciation of eastern North America. Pp. 277-288. In W.F. Ruddiman and H.E. Wright, Jr. (eds.) North America During Deglaciation. The Geology of North America, DNAG v. K3, Geological Society of America.
  • Jacobson, H.A., G.L. Jacobson, and J.T. Kelley: 1987. Distribution and abundance of salt marshes along the Coast of Maine. Estuaries 10:124-129.
  • Belknap, D.F., B.G. Andersen, R.S. Anderson, W.A. Anderson, H.W. Borns, Jr., G.L. Jacobson, Jr., J.T. Kelley, R.C. Shipp, D.C. Smith, R Stuckenrath, Jr., W.B. Thompson, and D.A. Tyler: 1987. Late Quaternary sea-level changes in Maine. In Nummedal, D., O.H. Pilkey, Jr., J.D. Howard (Eds.), Sea Level change and Coastal Deposition Systems Architecture. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication 41:65-79.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr. and E.C. Grimm: 1986. Numerical analysis of Holocene forest and prairie vegetation in central Minnesota. Ecology 67:958-966.
  • Davis, R.B. and G.L. Jacobson, Jr.: 1985. Late-glacial and early post-glacial landscapes in northern New England and adjacent Canadian regions. Quaternary Research 23:341-368.
  • Davis, R.B. and G.L. Jacobson, Jr.: 1985. Inferred extent of ice cover during deglaciation. In Thompson, W.B. and H.B. Borns, Jr. (Eds.), Surficial geologic map of Maine. Maine Geological Survey, Augusta.
  • Bonnichsen, R., G.L. Jacobson, Jr., R.B. Davis, and H.W. Borns, Jr.: 1985. The environmental setting for human colonization of northern New England and adjacent Canada in Late Pleistocene time. In Borns, LaSalle, and Thompson (Eds.) Late Pleistocene History of Northern New England and Adjacent Quebec. Geological society of America special Papers 197:151-159.
  • Kenlan, K.H., G.L. Jacobson, Jr. and D.F. Brakke: 1984. Aquatic acrophytes and pH as controls of diversity for littoral Cladocerans. Pp. 63-84 In G.R. Hendry (Ed.) Chronic Stress of Acidification on Freshwater Biota. Acid Precipitation Series – vol. 6. Ann Arbor Science, Butterworth.
  • Anderson, R.S., R.L. Homola, R.B. Davis and G.L. Jacobson, Jr.: 1984. The occurrence of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatum in post-glacial lake sediments from Maine. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:2325-2328.
  • Belknap, E.F., J.T. Kelley, H.W. Borns, Jr., R.C. Shipp, G.L. Jacobson, and R. Stuckenrath, Jr.: 1984. Sea-level change curves for coastal Maine. Report from the Maine Geological Survey to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 33p.
  • Davis, R.B., G.L. Jacobson, Jr., L.S. Widoff, and A. Zlotsky: 1983. Evaluation of Maine peatlands for their unique and exemplary qualities. Report to the Maine Dept. of conservation, Augusta, Maine. 186 pp.
  • Bonnichsen, R., D. Young, R. Graham, C. Schweger, G.L. Jacobson, Jr. and V. Konrad: 1982. High-altitude adaptation at False Cougar Cave: A preliminary statement. National Geographic Society Annual Reports, Washington, D.C. 24pp.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr. and R.H.W. Bradshaw: 1981. The selection of sites for paleovegetational studies. Quaternary Research 16:80-96.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr. and H.J.B. Birks: 1980. Soil development on recent terminal moraines of the Klutlan Glacier, Southwest Yukon, Canada. Quaternary Research 14:87-100.
  • Jacobson, G.L., Jr.: 1979. The Palaeoecology of White Pine in Minnesota. Journal of Ecology, 67(2):697-726.


Ph.D. University of Minnesota 1975

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