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Climate Change Institute

Ann Dieffenbacher-Krall

Assistant Research Professor, Climate Change Institute

Ann Dieffenbacher-Krall

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119 Sawyer Research Center
University of Maine 
Orono, ME  04469-5764


Paleoecology, Paleohydrology, Environmental reconstruction, Paleoclimatology, Plant ecology, Insect ecology (Chironomidae)

Research interests



My current research focuses primarily on the causes of abrupt climate change, in particular the rapid climate changes associated with the end of the last ice age in both the Northern (Maine and Florida, USA, and Ireland) and Southern (New Zealand and Patagonia) Hemispheres.  I work specifically on environmental reconstruction using biological proxies in lake sediment and peat in cooperation with glacial geologists, biologists, limnologists, and archaeologists.  My research includes methodological advances for climatic interpretation of biological proxies including transfer functions for New Zealand and Patagonian chironomids, and Northeastern North American pollen, plant macrofossils, and carbonate.


  • Zink, K.-G., M.J. Vandergoes, K. Mangelsdorf, A.C. Dieffenbacher-Krall, and L. Schwark. 2010. Application of bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) to develop modern and past temperature estimates from New Zealand lakes. Organic Geochemistry, 41: 1060-1066.
  • Massaferro, J.I., P.I. Moreno, G. Denton, M. Vandergoes, and A. Dieffenbacher-Krall. 2009. Chironomid and pollen evidence for climate fluctuations during the Last Glacial Termination in NW Patagonia. Quaternary Science Reviews 28: 517-525.
  • Vandergoes, M.V., A.C. Dieffenbacher-Krall, R.M. Newnham, G.H. Denton, and M. Blaauw. 2008. Cooling and changing seasonality in the Southern Alps, New Zealand during the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Quaternary Science Reviews 27: 589-601.
  • Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C., M.J. Vandergoes, C.A. Woodward, and I.K.G. Boothroyd. 2008. Guide to Identification and Ecology of New Zealand Subfossil Chironomids Found in Lake Sediment. Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, Orono, ME.

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  • Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C., M.V. Vandergoes, and G.H. Denton. 2007. An inference model for mean summer air temperatures in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, using subfossil chironomids. Quaternary Science Reviews 26: 2487-2504.
  • Sanger, D., H. Almquist, and A.C. Dieffenbacher-Krall. 2007. Mid-Holocene cultural adaptations to Central Maine. In: D. Anderson et al., eds. Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics: A Global Perspective on Holocene Transitions. Academic Press, pp. 435-456.
  • Grimm, E.C., W.A. Watts, G.L. Jacobson Jr., B.C.S. Hansen, H. Almquist, and A.C. Dieffenbacher-Krall. 2006. Warm wet Heinrich Events in Florida. Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 2197-2211.
  • Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C. 2006. Surface samples, taphonomy, representation (Plant macrofossil methods and studies). In: S. Elias, ed. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Elsevier Science, pp. 2367-2374.
  • Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C., and A.M. Nurse. 2005. Late-glacial and Holocene record of lake levels of Mathews Pond and Whitehead Lake, Northern Maine, USA. Journal of Paleolimnology 34: 283-310.
  • Norton, S.A., E.R. Perry, T.A. Haines, and A.C. Dieffenbacher-Krall. 2004. Paleolimnological assessment of Grove and Plow Shop Ponds, Ayer, Massachusetts, USA - A superfund site. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 6: 1-11.
  • Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C., and G.L. Jacobson Jr. 2001. Post-glacial changes in the geographic ranges of certain aquatic vascular plants in North America. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy: Biology and Environment 101B (1-2): 79-84.
  • Almquist, H., A.C. Dieffenbacher-Krall, R. Flanagan-Brown, and D. Sanger. 2001. The Holocene record of lake levels of Mansell Pond, Central Maine, USA. The Holocene 11: 189-201.
  • Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C., and W.A. Halteman. 2000. The relationship of modern plant remains to water depth in alkaline lakes in New England. Journal of Paleolimnology 24: 213-339.
  • DeHayes, D.H., G.L. Jacobson Jr., P.G. Schaberg, B. Bongarten, L. Iverson, and A.C. Dieffenbacher-Krall. 2000. Forest responses to changing climate: lessons from the past and uncertainty for the future. In: R.A. Mickler, R.A. Birdsey, and J. Hom, eds. Responses of Northern U.S. Forests to Environmental Change. Springer, NY, pp. 495-540.
  • Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C. 1997. Paleoecology and historical ecology of an extensive bluejoint reedgrass grassland in coastal eastern Maine. In: P.D. Vickery and P.W. Dunwiddie, eds. Grasslands of Northeastern North America: Ecology and Conservation of Native and Agricultural Landscapes. Center for Biological Conservation, Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, MA, pp. 53-67.


PhD University of Maine

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