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References
 

References

Schuster, P.F., et al., 2002, Fremont Glacier Atmospheric Mercury Data, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2002-038. NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.

Blunier et al., 1995, Nature

Chappallez et al., 1999, Nature

Etheridge et al. 1994, Trends

Etheridge et al., 1996, JGR

Etheridge et al., 1998, JGR

Hong et al., 1994, Science

Hong et al., 1996, Science 1994, Trends

Schuster et al., 2002, Env. Sci.

Hou et al., 2002, Annals of Glac.

Mayewski et al., 1986, Science

Stauffer et al., 1998, Nature

http://data.giss.nasa.gov/modelforce/

http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/

Indermühle et al., 1999, Nature

Kang et al., 2001, J. Glac.

Kang et al., 2002, Atmosp. Env.

Kang et al., 2002, J. Geophys. Res.

Leuenberger and Siegenthaler,

Mayewski et al., 1986, Science

Mayewski et al., 1990, Nature

Petit et al., 1999, Nature

Qin et al., 2002, Annals of Glac.

Human Pollutants

Dr. Pieter Tans, NOAA/ESRL (www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/) and Dr. Ralph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/).


Etheridge, D.M., et al. 2010. Law Dome Ice Core 2000-Year CO2, CH4, and N2O Data.IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2010-070. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.


Lüthi, D., et al.. 2008. EPICA Dome C Ice Core 800KYr Carbon Dioxide Data. IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2008-055. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.


Loulergue, L., et al.. 2008. EPICA Dome C Ice Core 800KYr Methane Data. IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2008-054. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.

Etheridge, D.M., et al. 2010. Law Dome Ice Core 2000-Year CO2, CH4, and N2O Data.IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2010-070. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.


Flückiger, J., A. Dällenbach, B. Stauffer, 1999, N2O Data Covering the Last Millennium. IGBP Pages/World Data Center-A for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series #1999-058 NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.

McConnell, J.R., and R. Edwards. 2008. Greenland Ice Core ACT2 Toxic Heavy Metals Data. IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2008-079. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.


US Lead Emissions: http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe index.cfmfuseaction=detail.viewInd&lv=list.listbyalpha&r=216603&subtop=341


Schwikowski,  M., Barbante, C., Doering, T.,   Gaeggeler, H., Boutron, C., Schotterer, U., Tobler, L., Van de Velde, K., Ferrari, C., Cozzi, G., Rosman, K., and Cescon, P., (2004) Post-17th-Century Changes of European Lead Emissions Recorded in High-Altitude Alpine Snow and Ice. Environmental Science and Technology. 38, 4.


Osterberg, E., et al. 2008.Mt. Logan PR Col Ice Core 7,400 Year Glaciochemical Data. IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2008-094. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.


International historical statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania, 1750-1993 / B.R. Mitchell. London : Macmillan Reference ; New York : Stockton Press, 1998. [Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks: HA4675 .M573 1998]

Mayewski, P.A., W.B. Lyons, M.J. Spencer, M.S. Twickler, C.F. Buck, and S.I. Whitlow. 1990. An ice core record of atmospheric response to anthropogenic sulphate and nitrate. Nature 346:554-556.


Grubler, A., (2002) Trends in Global Emissions: Carbon, Sulfur, and Nitrogen. Causes and consequences of global environmental change, Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change . Vol. 3, pp 35–53


Preunkert, S., Legrand, M., Wagenbach, D ., (2001) Sulfate trends in a Col du Dome (French Alps) ice core: A record of anthropogenic sulfate levels in the European midtroposphere over the twentieth century.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (D23), 31991-32,004


Koerner, R.M., Fisher, D.A., Goto-Azuma, K.,  (1999) A 100 year record of ion chemistry from Agassiz ice cap Northern Ellesmere Island NWT, Canada Atmospheric Environment 33 (3), 347-357


Mayewski, P.A., W.B. Lyons, M.J. Spencer, M.S. Twickler, C.F. Buck, and S.I. Whitlow. 1990. An ice core record of atmospheric response to anthropogenic sulphate and nitrate. Nature 346:554-556.


Olivier, S., Blaser, C., Brütsch, S., Frolova, N., Gäggeler, HW., Henderson, K.A ., Palmer, A.S., Papina, T.,  Schwikowski, M., (2006)  Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai, J. Geophys. Res, 111.


Grubler, A., (2002) Trends in Global Emissions: Carbon, Sulfur, and Nitrogen. Causes and consequences of global environmental change, Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change . Vol. 3, pp 35–53



McConnell, J.R., et al.  2007. Greenland D4 Ice Core Black Carbon, VA, and nssS Data.IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2007-060.  NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.

Schuster, P.F., et al., 2004, Fremont Glacier 1991 Core Tritium Data. IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2004-079.NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.


Green et all., (2004) A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central AsiaNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 223–224 854–857


Dibb et al., (1990) Beta Radiation from Snow.  Nature Vol. 345


Kalnay et al., 1996, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.

http://www.cdc.noaa.gov

Carbon dioxide (CO  )

2

Methane (CH  )

4

Nitrous dioxide (N O  )

2

Lead (Pb)

Mercury (Hg)

Nitrate (NO3-)

Sulfate (SO4 2-)

Black Carbon

Tritium and 36Cl-

What is Climate?

What are the natural factors that lead to climate change?

Ice Core 101

Petit, J.R., et al., 2001, Vostok Ice Core Data for 420,000 Years, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series #2001-076. 

NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.

Volstok Ice Core, Antarctica

GISP2 and Siple Dome Ice Cores

Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions

Mayewski et al., (2006) Recent warming inconsistent with natural association between temperature and atmospheric circulation over the last 2000 years, Clim. Past Discuss., 2, 1–29. 2